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While today’s problem for developing countries is the high level of poverty due to high fertility, tomorrow’s problem will be avoiding a decline in living standards in countries with aging populations and declining workforces.
Northern Europe, France and the UK have in varying degrees tried to avoid it with programs such as job protection and generous leave for pregnant and nursing mothers, government funding of nursery schools, direct child support payments and other measures to reduce the economic opportunity costs of childbearing.
sparsely populated except in the Rhine, Rhine, Elbe and Danube river valleys d. includes ranges in the Italian and Balkan peninsulas, northern Spain, southern France …
includes the mountains of the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines, Dinaric Alps, Balkans, Carpathians …
Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent.
Europe’s culture has spread world-wide through exploration, colonization, imperialism, immigration, trade 1.
high elevations, rugged plateaus, steeply sloping land, active volcanoes, such as Mount Etna and Mount Vesuvius in Italy 3. complex geology with newest and oldest formations b.
latitudinal extent (from Arctic to Mediterranean Subtropics) c. thousands of years of human occupation caused changes (human-environment interaction) 1.
north European lowlands: lengthy arc (aka Great European Plain) of rivers and waterways, most densely populated region of Europe, agriculture, industries …
defined by hard and ancient rock shaped by glaciation, abundant marshlands, lakes, fjords b.At a lower fertility rate, future growth is much harder to achieve and several countries face future aging shocks.